Graduate Student Research Projects


Z-inverter Application for Multiple Sources Electric Vehicle Traction, Design, Control and Management

Mande Daouda
Supervisor:
Prof. João Pedro Trovão – University of Sherbrooke, Qc, Canada

Motivation
Energy storage and conversion play the important role in the field of distributed generation systems.
The quasi z-source Inverter is a promising architecture.
It can be use as replacement of conventional two-stage inverter for energy management of multi-source in electric vehicle.
Objectives
Develop a dual-source z-source topology suitable for electric vehicle.
Work plan
Make a comparison between Topology A and B.
Design a comprehensive dual-source Z-inverter topology.
Control and management development.
Simulation models development to test the control and management approaches.
Built a test set-up for the new developed topology.
Test and validate it by experiments.
Results
Topology A can be more useful for energy management multi-source in electric vehicle.
Tracking performance, efficiency, voltage gain.
New topology for dual-source electric vehicles.


Optimization of Auxiliary Electric Operations of a Handsize Bulk Carrier

Hugo Daniel
Supervisor:
Prof. João Pedro Trovão – University of Sherbrooke, Qc, Canada

Motivation
Lower CO2 and air pollutant emissions of merchant ships while they are at rest in ports
Need to optimize the auxiliary system to reduce emissions

Objectives
Plug the bulk carriers to the grid on land (shore power)
Lower investments for such a system (hybrid system)
Improve  the performance of the auxiliary system

Work plan
Detail the energy demand for a bulk carrier in port
Mathematical modelling of the ship emission and microgrid
Find the best shore power solution with a multi-objective approach
Design an energy management strategy (EMS)
Technical-economic study

Results
Lower shipping GHG + air pollutants (NOx, SOx, etc.)
High-level design of shore power system (1.8 MW)
Power flow control of the system
Financial analysis

https://youtu.be/VqbJTMuTOfA

Study of Battery Packs Dynamic Behavior for High Performance Electric Vehicles

Félix-Antoine LeBel
Supervisor:
Prof. João Pedro Trovão – University of Sherbrooke, Qc, Canada

Motivation
Improve the accuracy of lithium-ion battery models
Study transient behavior of battery packs made of multiple cells in series/parallel Improve reliability and life time of Electric Vehicles

Objectives
Study the effects of the electrical configuration of parallelized cells on current distribution.
Put together a complete lithium-ion battery pack simulation model

Work plan
Study the behavior of  cells in multiple series-parallel arrangements.
Study the thermal and ageing behavior of single cells.
Implement an ageing model into the existing single cell model.
Integrate a single cell model into a finite element analysis simulation software.

Results
Discovery the influence of the electrical layout of the cells on the current, naming the two possible layout Cis and Trans.


Optimal Management of Public Transportation Electric Vehicle Fleets in Smart Grids

Nuno Faria
Supervisors: 
Prof. Carlos Henggeler – DEEC-UC, INESC Coimbra
Prof. João P. Trovão – Univ. Sherbrooke, Qc, Canada, INESC Coimbra

Motivation
Electric vehicles are expected to play a key role in the changing paradigm of power systems towards smart grids:
increasing penetration of renewable -generation,
promoting energy efficiency,
load follows supply.

From the  Distribution System Operator (DSO) point of view, Electric Vehicles can bring advantages to grid management participating in capacity, energy and ancillary services markets;
Electric vehicles belonging to a fleet or aggregated under the same entity can have a major impact on grid operation.

Objectives
Develop a decision support framework to optimize electric vehicle fleet charging, operation and interaction with the smart grid.

Work plan
Characterization of operational requirements of different types of public transportation electric vehicle fleets:
service schedules and driving patterns;
charging modes;
communications needs.
Optimization of charging schedules taking into account:
operational constraints;
dynamic tariffs;
ancillary services provision;
conflicts between stakeholders.
Impact analysis on technical issues:
emergency requests and alert actions;
 local voltage control and support, peak-shaving and var support;
frequency control, imbalances and power quality.
Study of centralized vs. decentralized control schemes;
Real case study with data of public transportation electric buses in a Portuguese city.


Passive fuel cell-supercapacitor configuration for hybrid electric vehicles

Álvaro Omar Macías Fernández
Supervisors:
Prof. Loïc Boulon – Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Qc
Prof. João Pedro Trovão – University of Sherbrooke, Qc

Motivation
Greenhouse gases emission and recharging time are opposite problems that hydrogen fuel cell overcomes
Cheaper and efficient systems are required to boost the market penetration of fuel cell electric vehicles
Objectives
Investigate the applicability of hybrid passive fuel cell configuration for electric recreational vehicles
Compare the performance of different customized FC hybrid configurations considering sizing and management
Evaluate the suitability of integrating the new technology of Li-ion capacitor (LIC) in a FC hybrid energy system
Work plan
Review the hybrid configurations state-of-the-art studies
Characterize and simulate the vehicle sub-modules
Design an optimal sizing and energy management method
Benchmark three optimal FC hybrid configurations
Evaluate LIC technology as the secondary power supply
Results
A two-step optimization methodology can determine the optimal system component size of any hybrid vehicle.
Passive configuration reduces the hydrogen consumption and complexity of the power supply system.
Increase the portability of the power supply system

https://youtu.be/dsNVL3KCbfU

Optimization of Power Distribution Management of Dual-motor 4WD Electric Vehicle

NGUYEN Thi Phuong Chi
Supervisor:
Prof. João Pedro Trovão – University of Sherbrooke, QC, Canada 

Motivation
Novel 4WD EV topology powered by two independent electric motors fulfills the high performance and high efficiency requirements.
The multi-objective problem considering the optimal energy management solution and the gearbox ratio design is solved.

Objectives
Dynamic performance of multi-speed multi-motor EV is improved by a superior transmission system.
The advanced power management strategy adopted between two motors offers an optimal energy usage.
A modified power supply is recommended to reduce the battery stress.

Work plan
Modelling the proposed two-motor 4WD powertrain based on EMR
Optimization-based algorithm for the proper gearbox ratio design.
Real-time implementation of maximizing the energy efficiency for dual-motor EV system.
Selected battery-based topology with lower battery losses.
HIL test system for control strategy validations.

Results
Optimal gear ratios for the high driving performance.
Maximized system energy efficiency in the real driving cycle.
The battery aging reduction by a promising battery-based topology.


Fuel-Cell/Li-ion Capacitors Vehicle using Embedded Quasi-Z-Source Inverter Topology

Thang Van Do
Supervisors:
Prof. João Pedro Trovão – University of Sherbrooke, Qc
Prof. Loïc Boulon – Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Qc

Motivation
In order to the improvement of the performance of EV, the optimization of electric power consumption and its driving range extension.
The connection of a hybrid power supply system including high specific energy (Fuel-Cell) and power (Li-Ion capacitors) is especially important to provide/store high amounts of energy for hard acceleration and braking operations.

Objectives
Introducing a new generation of the energy storage system (ESS) in a multi-source EV.
Developing a high-efficiency single-stage conversion using GaN and SiC, which is most suitable for EV.

Work plan
Design of the quasi-Z-source inverter for EVs.
Design of advanced control loop of the embedded quasi-Z-source inverter.Simulation of EV system in Matlab and PSIM.
Design of schematic and PCB for the EV system.
Building quasi-Z-source inverter porotype, testing and evaluating its performance.

Results
Usage of new generation and combination of energy storage system (Li-ion Cap).
Robust control of Embedded Quasi Z-Source inverter for Fuel-Cell and Li-ion Capacitors.

https://youtu.be/WTHkswumiYg

Efficiency and Reliability Enhancement of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

Mohsen Kandidayeni
Supervisors:
Prof. João Pedro Trovão – University of Sherbrooke, Qc
Prof. Loïc Boulon – Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Qc

Motivation
There is a pressing need for designing a robust energy management strategy against the performance drifts of the power sources in a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle.
Fuel cell is a multiphysics system with time-varying performance, yet its energetic efficiency can be enhanced through systemic control designs.

Objectives
Online modeling of the fuel cell system
Developing a systemic management approach for the fuel cell stack
Integrating online modeling into the design of systemic energy management strategies

Work plan
Developing an online parameter estimator for the fuel cell
Proposing a systemic management and control approach
Putting forward a holistic energy management strategy using the previous steps
Experimental validation

Results
Online characteristics estimation of the fuel cell (polarization curve, power curve etc.)
Enhancing the efficiency of the vehicle by means of the holistic energy management strategy
Generating multiple reference signals to achieve optimality in power distribution